The Liberty Bell in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania is a familiar symbol of independence,
freedom, and justice in America. Originally called the State House Bell, it was
commissioned in 1751 by colonial representatives. The bell has been tolled on important
days from the colonial era to modern times. After enduring cracks, repairs, and an
exciting hideout from the British, the bell is now on display. It is rung every Fourth of
In 1751, three men representing the Pennsylvania Assembly wrote a letter to their
colonial agent in London. On the fiftieth anniversary of William Penn’s Charter of
Privileges, they requested a bell for Philadelphia’s State House steeple. The agent
arranged for casting at London’s Whitechapel foundry, and the bell was delivered in
The bell was met with much excitement. First of all, it weighed an impressive 2,080
pounds! More importantly, it was a solid, solemn symbol of what the Pennsylvania
Assembly hoped to uphold. William Penn had been especially progressive with religious
freedom, Native American rights, and democracy overall. The bell was inscribed with a
Biblical passage to capture this spirit: “Proclaim liberty throughout all the land unto all
the inhabitants thereof.”
However, early on the bell cracked! Historians disagree about the source of the fissure. In
any case, the London foundry set about casting another bell. Meanwhile, two
Philadelphia men (John Pass and John Stow) attempted to repair the one that had cracked.
They figured that the alloy had been too brittle, so they added more copper. This healed
the wound, but people disliked the bell’s new tone. (They were aiming for a pleasant E
note.) The men tried again, and their second attempt was hung in the State House in
1753. When the re-ordered British bell arrived, it was placed elsewhere in the State
House to sound the hours. Today, the State House is known as Independence Hall.
The State House bell was rung on many famous occasions in US history. It called the
Assembly together and summoned townspeople for special announcements. It tolled
when Benjamin Franklin headed for England to address colonists’ grievances; it tolled for
discussion of the Sugar Act in 1764 and again for the Stamp Act in 1765; and it rang
again for the First Continental Congress in 1774. The bell continued to signal important
events, and many events were deemed important during the Revolution. A group of
citizens who lived near the bell actually petitioned for less tolling, stating that they were
inconvenienced and stressed!
Suddenly, in 1777, the city’s bells were all removed. The British would soon be
occupying Philadelphia, and surely they’d melt the bells for cannon fodder. The State
House bell and more than a dozen others were moved to Zion’s Reformed Church in
Allentown, Pennsylvania for safekeeping. They remained hidden beneath church
floorboards until after the occupation in 1778. After its reemergence, the bell continued
to sound for important events such as elections and the Fourth of July.
It was referred to as the Independence Bell or the Old Yankees’ Bell until 1837 when
abolitionists noted its relevance to slavery and freedom. The bell’s Leviticus inscription
can be interpreted as a call to end enslavement. For example, the entire passage from
Leviticus 25:10 includes, “And ye shall… proclaim liberty throughout the land… and ye
shall return every man unto his family.” Abolitionists adopted the bell as their symbol,
and since then it’s been known as the Liberty Bell.
By 1846, the Liberty Bell had developed a thin crack that was affecting its sound. It was
repaired in time for George Washington’s birthday that year, but when rung on his
birthday, it cracked severely. A replica “Centennial Ball” was given to the city in 1876.
The original bell is now on display in a new pavilion, the Liberty Bell Center. The
Centennial replica is hung in the steeple of Independence Hall, and a third bell – the
“Bicentennial Ball” granted by Queen Elizabeth — hangs in a nearby tower. The original
bell is still rung, though gently, every July 4th. Young descendents of famous
revolutionaries are invited to tap the bell thirteen times in celebration of the original
thirteen states.

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